Acceptance

Formal agreement that an IT Service, Process, Plan, or other Deliverable is complete, accurate, Reliable and meets its specified Requirements. Acceptance is usually preceded by Evaluation or Testing and is often required before proceeding to the next stage of a Project or Process.

A good example is the User Acceptance sign off after User Acceptance Testing (UAT) of a new or changed Application or Service.

See also: Service Acceptance Criteria

Access Management

The Process responsible for allowing Users to make use of IT Services, data, or other Assets.

Access Management helps to protect the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of Assets (Data) by ensuring that only authorised Users are able to access or modify the Assets (Data, Services etc).

Access Management is sometimes referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management.

Account Manager

A Role that is very similar to Business Relationship Manager, but includes more commercial aspects. Most commonly used when dealing with External Customers.

Accounting

The Process responsible for identifying actual Costs of delivering IT Services, comparing these with budgeted costs, and managing variances from the Budget.

Accredited

Officially authorised to carry out a Role. For exampe and Accredited body may be authorized to provide training or to conduct Audits.

Active Monitoring

Monitoring of a Configuration Item or an IT Service that uses automated regular checks to discover the current status.

Activity

A set of actions designed to achieve a particular result. Activities are usually defined as part of Processes or Plans, and are documented in Procedures.

Agreed Service Time

A synonym for Service Hours, commonly used in formal calculations of Availability.

Agreement

A Document that describes a formal understanding between two or more parties. An Agreement is not legally binding, unless it forms part of a Contract.

See also
Service Level Agreement, Operational Level Agreement.

Alert

A warning that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a Failure has occurred. Alerts are often created and managed by System Management tools and are managed by the Event Management Process.

Analytical Modelling

A technique that uses mathematical Models to predict the behaviour of a Configuration Item or IT Service.

Analytical Models are commonly used in Capacity Management and Availability Management.

See also: Modelling.

Application

Software that provides Functions that are required by an IT Service. Each Application may be apart of more than one IT Service. An Application runs on one or more Servers or Clients.

See also: Application Management

Application Management

(Service Design, Service Operations)
The Function responsible for managing Applications throughout their Lifecycle.

Application Portfolio

A database or structured Document used to manage Applications throughout their Lifecycle. The Application Portfolio contains key Attributes of all Applications.

The Application Portfolio is sometimes implemented as part of the Service Portfolio, or as part of the Configuration Management System.

Application Service Provider

An External Service Provider that provides IT Services using Applications running at the Service Provider's premises.

Users access the Applications by network connections to the Service Provider.

Application Sizing

(Service Design)
the Activity responsible for understanding the Resource Requirements needed to support a new Application or major Change to an existing Application. Application Sizing helps to ensure that the IT Service can beet its agreed Service Level Targets for Capacity and Performance.

Architecture

(Service Design)
The structure of a System or IT Service, including the Relationships of Components to each other and to the environment they are in.

Architecture also includes the Standards and Guidelines that guide the design and evolution of the System.

Assembly

A Configuration Item that is made up from a number of other Configuration Items (CI). For example a Server CI may contain CIs for CPUs, Disks, Memory etc.; an IT Service CI may contain many Hardware, Software and other CIs.

See also: Component CI, Build.

Assessment

Inspection and analysis to check whether a Standard or set of Guidelines is being followed, that Records are accurate, or that Efficiency and Effectiveness targets are being met.

See also: Audit

Asset

(Service Strategy)
Any Resource or Capability. Assets of a Service Provider including anything that could contribute to the delivery of a Service.

Assets can be one of the following types: Management, Organisation, Process, Knowledge,  People, Information, Applications, Infrastructure and Financial Capital.

Asset Management

(Service Transition)
Asset Management is the Process responsible for tracking and reporting the value and ownership of financial Assets throughout their Livecycle.

Asset Management is part of an overall Service Asset and Configuration Management Process.

Asset Register

A piece of information about a Configuration Item (CI). Examples are name, location, Version number, and Cost.

Attributes of CIs are recorded in the Configuration Management Database (CMDB).

See also: Relationship.

Attribute

(Service Transition)
A piece of information about a Configuration item.

Examples are:

  • Name
  • Location
  • Version number
  • Cost

Attribute of CIs are recorded in the Configuration Management Database (CMDB)



See also:

Relationship


Audit

Formal inspection and verification to check whether a Standard or set of Guidelines is being followed, that Records are accurate, or that Efficiency and Effectiveness targets are being met.

An Audit may be carried out by internal or external groups.

See also:

Certification, Assessment

Authority Matrix

See: RACI

Automatic Call Distribution

(Service Operation)
Use of Information Technology to direct an incoming telephone call to the most appropriate person in the shortest possible time. ACD is sometimes called Automated Call Distribution.

Availability

Ability of a Configuration or IT Service to perform its agreed Function when required.

Availability is dermined by Reliability, Maintainability, Serviceability, Performance, and Security.

Availability is usually calculated as a percentage. This calculation is often based on Agreed Service Time and Downtime.

It is Best Practice to calculate Availability using measurements of the Business output of the IT Service.

Availability Management

The Process responsible for defining, analysing, Planning, mesuring and improving all aspects of the Availability of IT Services.

Availability Management is responsible for ensuring that all IT Infrastructure, Processes, Tools, Roles, etc. are appropriate for the agreed Service Level Targets for Availability.

Availability Management Information System

(Service Design)

A virtual repository of all Availablity Management data, usually stored in multiple physical locations.

See also: Service Knowledge Management System

Availability Plan

A Plan to ensure that existing and future Availability Requirements for IT Services can be provided Cost Effectively.

Back-out

Synonym for Remediation.

Example: Back-out describes the activity that is undertaken when the implementation of a change has failed and the decision is made to revert the state of the Configuration Item(s) or IT Services in question back to where it was before the change implementation started.

Backup

Copying data to protect against loss of Integrity or Availability of the original.

Balanced Scorecard

A management tool developed by Drs. Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton.

A Balanced Scorecard enables a Strategy to be broken down into Key Performance Indicators. Performance against the KPIs is used to demonstrate how well the Strategy is being achieved.

A Balanced Scorecard has 4 major areas, each of which has a small number of KPIs. The same 4 areas are considered at different levels of detail throughout the Organisation.

Baseline

A Benchmark used as a reference point. For example:

  • An ITSM Baseline cna be used a starting point to measure the effect of a Service Improvement Plan (SIP)
  • A Performance Baseline can be used to measure changes in Performance over the lifetime of an IT Service
  • A Configuration Management Baseline can be used to enable the IT Infrastructure to be restored to a known Configuration if a Change or Release fails
Benchmark

The recorded state of something at a specific point in time. A Benchmark can be created for a Configuration, a Process, or any other set of data. For example, a benchmark can be used in:

  • Continual Service Improvement, to establish the current state for managing improvements
  • Capacity Management, to document performance characteristics during normal operations
See also:

Benchmarking, Baseline


Best Practice

Proven Activities or Processes that have been successfully used by multiple Organisations. ITIL is an example of Best Practice.

At least this is what ITIL claimed to be in version 2. With version 3, ITIL changed this to be "Good Practice" as calling ITIL "best" would mean that any other framework for improvements would only be 2nd best or worse....

Brainstorming

A technique that helps a team to generate ideas. Ideas are not reviewed during the Brainstorming session, but at a later stage. Brainstorming is often used by Problem Management to identify possible causes.

British Standards Institution

The UK National Standards body, responsible for creating and maintaining British Standards.

See also: ISO and http://www.bsi-global.com for more information.

Budget

A list of the money an Organisation or Business Unit plans to receive, and plans to pay out, over a specified period of time.

See also: Budgeting, Planning

Budgeting

The Activity of predicting and controlling the spending of money. Consits of a periodic negotiation cycle to set future Budgets (usually one per year) and the day-to-day monitoring and adjusting of current Budgets.

Build

The Activity of assembling a number of Configuration Items to create part of an IT Service.
The term Build is also used to refer to a Release that is authorised for distribution. For example Server Build or laptop Build.

See also: Configuration Baseline.

Build Environment

A controlled Environment where Applications, IT Services and other Builds are assembled prior to being moved into a Test or Live Environment.

Business

An overall corporate entity or Organisation formed of al number of Business Units. In the context of IT Service Management (ITSM), the term Business includes public sector and not-for-profit organisations, as well as companies.

An IT Service Provider provides IT Services to a Customer within a Business. The IT Service Provider may be part of the same Business as its Customer (Internal Service Provider), or part of another Business (External Service Provider).

Business Capacity Management

In the context of IT Service Management (ITSM), Business Capacity Management is the Activity responsible for understanding future Business Requirements for use in the Capacity Plan.

See also: Service Capacity Management

Business Case

Justification for a significant item of expenditure. Includes information about Costs, benefits, options, issues, Risks, and possible problems.

Business Continuity Management

The Business Process responsible for managing Risks that could seriously impact the Business.

Business Continuity Management (BCM) safeguards the interests of key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value-creating activities.

The Business Continuity Managment (BCM) Process involves reducing Risks to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of Business Processes should a disruption to the Business occur.

BCM sets the Objectives, Scope and Requirements for IT Service Continuity Managment.

Important to remember: IT Service Contintuity Management is a subset of BCM.

Business Continuity Plan

A Plan defining the steps required to Restore Business Processes following a disruption.

The Plan will also identify the triggers for Invocation, people to be involved, communications etc.

IT Service Continuity Plans form a significant part of Business Continuity Plans.

Business Customer

A recipient of a product or a Service from the Business.

For example if the Business is a car manufacturer then the Business Customer is someone who buys a car.

Business Impact Analysis

Business Impact Analysis (BIA) is the Activity in the Business Continuity Managment that identifies Vital Business Functions (VBF) and their dependencies.

These dependencies may include Suppliers, people, other Business Processes, IT Services, Recovery Point Objectives and minimum Service Level targets for each IT Service.

Business Objective

The Objective of a Business Process, or of the Business as a whole. Business Objectives support the business Vision, provide guidance for the IT Strategy, and are often supported by IT Services.

Business Operations

The day-to-day execution, monitoring and management of Business Processes.

Business Process

A Process that is owned and carried out by the Business.

A Business Process contributes to the delivery of a product or Service to a Business Customer.

For example, a retailer may have a purchasing Process that helps to deliver Services to its Business Customers.

Many Business Processes rely on IT Services

Business Relationship Management

Business Relationship Management (BRM) is the Process or Function responsible for maintaining a Relationship with the Business.

BRM usually includes:

  • Managing personal Relationships with Business managers
  • Providing input to Service Portfolio Management
  • Ensuring that the IT Service Provider is satisfying the Business needs of the Customers

This Process has strong links with Service Level Management.

Business Relationship Manager

Business Relationship Manager (BRM) is a Role responsible for maintaining the Relationship with one or more Customers.

This Role is often combined with the Service Level Manager Role.

See also: Account Manager.

Business Service Management

Business Service Management (BSM) is an approach to the management of IT Services that considers the Business Processes supported and the Business value provided.

This term also means the management of Business Services delivered to Business Customers.

Business Unit

A segment of the Business that has its own Plans, Metrics, income and Costs. Each Business Unit owns Assets and uses these to create value for Customers in the form of goods and Services.

Call

A telephone call to the Service Desk from a User. A Call could result in an Incident or Service Request being logged.

Call Centre

An Organisation or Business Unit which handles large numbers of incoming and outgoing telephone calls.

Call Type

A Category that is used to distinguish incoming requests to a Service Desk. Common Call Types are Incident, Service Request and Complaint.

Capability

The ability of an Organisation, person, Process, Application, Configuration Item (CI) or IT Service to carry out an Activity.

Capabilities are intangible Assets of an Organisation.

See also: Resource

Capability Maturity Model

The Capability Maturity Model for Software (also known as the CMM and SW-CMM) is a model used to identify Best Practices to help increase Process Maturity.

CMM was developed at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University.

In 2000, the SW-CMM was upgraded to CMMI® (Capability Maturity Model Integration). The SEI no longer maintains the SW-CMM model, its associated appraisal methods, or training materials.

Capability Maturity Model Integration CMMI

Capability Maturity Model (r) Initegration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Melon University, USA.

CMMI provides organisations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organisation.

CMMI helps integrate tradisitonally separate organisational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes. See: http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi for more information.

In the context of ITIL, CMMI can be used to asses how well the ITIL processes have been adopted by a company. So ITIL says what to do and CMMI says how well it is done.

See also: Maturity

Capacity

The maximum Throughput that a Configuration Item (CI) or IT Service can deliver whilst meeting agreed Service Level Targets.

For some types of CI, Capacity may be the size or volume, for example a disk drive.

Capacity Management

The Process responsible for ensuring that the Capcity of IT Services and th eIT Infrastructure is able to deliver agreed Service Level Targets in a Cost Effective and timely manner.

Capacity Management considers all Resources required to deliver the IT Service, and plans for short-, medium- and long-term Business Requirements.

Capacity Management Information System

Capacity Managment Informatiion System (CMIS) - A virtual repository of all Capacity Management data, usually stored in mulitple physical locations.

See also: Service Knowledge Management System

Capacity Plan
A Capacity Plan is used to manage the Resources required to deliver IT Services. The Plan contains scenarios for different predictions of Business demand, and costed options to deliver the agreed Service Level Targets.
Capacity Planning

The Activity within Capacity Management responsible for creating a Capacity Plan.

Capital Expenditure

Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) is the Cost of purchasing something that will become a financial Asset, for example computer equipment and buildings. The value of the Asset is Depreciated over multiple accounting periods.

Capital Item

Capital Item is an Asset that is of interest to Financial Management because it is above an agreed financial value.

For example, some companies keep only items above $1000 in the Asset Register. Any item below that value is expensed as Operating Expense (OPEX).

Local taxation rules have a big impact on this.

Capitalisation

Capitalisation is identifying major Cost as capital expense, even though no Asset is purchased.

This is done to spread the impact of the Cost over multiple accounting periods. The most common example of this is software development, or purchase of a software license.

Local taxation laws have an impact on this practice.

Category
A named group of things that have something in common. Categories are used to group similar things together.

For example, Cost Types are used to group similar types fo Cost. Incident Categories are used to group similar types of Incident, Configuration Item (CI) types are used to group similr types of Configuration Item.
 
Certification

Issuing a certificate to confirm Compliance to a Standard. Certification includes a formal Audit by an independent an Accredited body.

The term Certification is also used to mean awarding a certificate to verify that a person has achieved a qualification.

Change Advisory Board

A group of People that advises the Change Manager in the Assessment, prioritisation and scheduling of Changes.

This group holds meetings at regular time intervals (weekly, monthly etc) or ad-hoc as best suits the business.

This board is usuall made up of reqresentatives from all areas withing the IT Service Provider, representatives from the Business and Third Parties such as Suppliers.

See also: Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB)

Change Case

A technique used to predict the impact of proposed Changes. Change Cases use specific scenarios to clarify the scope of proposed Changes and to help with Cost Benefit Analysis.

See also: Use Case.

Change History

Information about all changes made to a Configuration Item (CI) during its life. Change History consists of all those Change Records that apply to the CI.

Change Management

The Process responsible for controlling the Lifecycle of all Changes.

The primary objective of Change Management is to enable beneficial Changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT Services.

Change Model

A repeatable way of dealing with a particular Category of Change.

A Change Model defines specific pre-defined steps that will be followed for a Change of this Category.

Change Models may be very simple, with no requirement for approval (e.g. Password Reset) or may be very complex with many steps that require approval (e.g. major software Release).

See also: Standard Change, Change Advisory Board.

Change Record

A Record containing the details of a Change. Each Change Record documents the Lifecycle of a single Change.

A Change Record is created for every Request for Change that is received, even those that are subsequently rejected.

Change Records should reference the Configuration Items that are affected by the Change. Change Records are stored in the Configuration Management System.

Change Request

Synonym for Request for Change.

Change Schedule

A Document that lists all approved Changes and their planned implementation dates.

A Change Schedule is sometimes called a Forward Schedule of Change, even though it also contains information about Changes that have already been implemented.

Change Window

A regular, agreed time when Changes or Releases may be implemented with minimal impact on Services.

Change Windows are usually documented in Service Level Agreements (SLA).

Charging

Requiring payment for IT Services. Charging for IT Services is optional, and many Organisations choose to treat their IT Service Provider as a Cost Centre.

Chronological Analysis

A technique used to help identify possible causes of Problems.

All available data about the Problem is collected and sorted by date and time to provide a detailed timeline.

This can make it possible to identify which Events may have been triggered by others.

CI Type

A Category that is used to Classify Configuration Items (CI).

The CI Type identifies the required Attributes and Relationships for a Configuration Record. Common CI Types include: hardware, Document, User etc.

Classification

The act of assigning a Category to something. Classification is used to ensure consistent management and reporting. CIs, Incidents, Problems, Changes etc. are usually classified.

Client

A generic term that means a Customer, the Business or a Business Customer.

For example Client Manager may be used as a synonym for Account Manager.

The term client is also used to mean:

  • A computer that is used directly by a User, for example a PC, Handheld Computer, or Workstation.
  • The part of a Client-Server Application that the User
Closed

The final Status in the Lifecycle of an Incident, Problem, Change etc. When the Status is Closed, no further action is taken.

Closure

The act of changing the Status of an Incident, Problem, Change etc. to Closed.

COBIT

Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) provides guidance and Best Practice for the management of IT Processes. COBIT is published by the IT Governance Institute.

See http://www.isaca.org/ for more information.

Code of Practice

A Guideline published by a public body or a Standards Organisation, such as ISO or BSI. Many Standards consist of a Code of Practice and a Specification. The Code of Practice describes recommended Best Practice.

Cold Standby

Synonym for Gradual Recovery.

Commercial off the Shelf

Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) - Application software or Middleware that can be purchased from a Third Party.

Compliance

Ensuring that a Standard or set of Guidelines is followed, or that proper, consistent accounting or other practices are being employed.

Component

A general term that is used to mean one part of something more complex.

For example, a computer System may be a component of an IT Service, an Application may be a Component of a Release Unit. Components that need to be managed should be Configuration Items.

Component Capacity Management

Component Capacity Management (CCM) - The Process responsible for understanding the Capacity, Utilisation, and Performance of Configuration Items.

Data is collected, recorded and analysed for use in the Capacity Plan.\

See also: Service Capacity Management.

Component CI

A Configuration Item (CI) that is part of an Assembly.

For example, a CPU or Memory CI may be part of a Server CI.

Component Failure Impact Analysis

A technique that helps to identify the impact of CI failure on IT Services.

A matrix is created with IT Services on one edge and CIs on the other. This enables the identification of critical CIs (that could cause the failure of multiple IT Services) and of fragile IT Services (that have multiple Single Points of Failure)

Computer Telephony Integration

Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) is a general term covering any kind of integration between computers and telephone Systems.

It is most commonly used to refer to Systems where an Application displays detailed screens relating to incoming or outgoing telephone calls.

See also: Automatic Call Distribution, Interactive Voice Response.

Concurrency
A measure of the number of Users engaged in the same Operation at the same time.
 
Confidentiality

A security principle that requires that data should only be accessed by authorised people.

Configuration

A generic term, used to describe a group of Configuration Items that work together to deliver an IT Service, or a recognizable part of an IT Service.

Configuration is also used to describe the parameter settings for one or more Configuration Items (CI)

Configuration Control

The Activity responsible for ensuring that adding, modifying or removing a Configuration Item (CI) is properly managed, for example by submitting a Request for Change or Service Request.

Configuration Identification

The Activity responsible for collecting information about Configuration Items (CI) and their Relationships, and loading this information into the CMDB.

Configuration Identification is also responsible for labelling the CIs themselves, so that the corresponding Configuration Records can be found.

Configuration Item

A Configuration Item (CI) is any Component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service.

Information about each CI is recorded in a Configuration Record within the Configuration Management System and is maintained throughout its Lifecycle by Configuration Management.

CIs are under the control of Change Management. CIs typically include IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs.

Configuration Management

The Process responsible for maintaining information about Configuration Items required to deliver an IT Service, including their Relationships.

This information is managed throughout the Lifecycle of the CI. Configuration Management is part of an overall Service Asset and Configuration Management Process.

Configuration Management Database

The Configuration Management Database (CMDB) is a database used to store Configuration Records throughout their Lifecycle.

The Configuration Management System maintains one or more CMDBs, and each CMDB stores Attributes of CIs, and Relationships with other CIs.

Configuration Management System

The Configuration Management System (CMS) is a set of tools and databases that are used to manage an IT Service Provider's Configuration data.

The CMS also includes information about Incidents, Problems, Known Errors, Changes and Releases; and may contain data about employees, Suppliers, locations, Business Units, Customers and Users.

The CMS includes tools for collecting, storing, managing, updating, and presenting data about all Configuration Items and their Relationships.

The CMS is maintained by Configuration Management and is used by all IT Service Management Processes.

See also: Configuration Management Database, Service Knowledge Management System.

Configuration Record

A Record containing the details of a Configuration Item (CI).

Each Configuration Record documents the Lifecycle of a single CI.

Configuration Records are stored in a Configuration Management Database.

Configuration Structure

The hierarchy and other Relationships between all the Configuration Items that comprise a Configuration.

Continual Service Improvement

Continual Service Improvement (CSI) is stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service and the title of one of the Core ITIL publications.

Continual Service Improvement is responsible for managing improvements to IT Service Management Processes and IT Services.

The Performance of the IT Service Provider is continually measured and improvements are made to Processes, IT Services and IT Infrastructure in order to increase Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Cost Effectiveness.

See also: Plan-Do-Check-Act.

Continuous Availability

An approach or design to achieve 100% Availability. A Continuously Available IT Service has no planned or unplanned Downtime.

Continuous Operation

An approach or design to eliminate planned Downtime of an IT Service. Note that individual Configuration Items may be down even though the IT Service is Available.

Contract

A legally binding Agreement between two or more parties.

Contract Portfolio

A database or structured Document used to manage Service Contracts or Agreements between an IT Service Provider and their Customers.

Each IT Service delivered to a Customer should have a Contract or other Agreement which is listed in the Contract Portfolio.

See also: Service Portfolio, Service Catalogue.

Control

A means of managing a Risk, ensuring that a Business Objective is achieved, or ensuring that a Process is followed.

Example Controls include Policies, Procedures, Roles, RAID, door-locks etc. A control is sometimes called a Countermeasure or safeguard.

Control also means to manage the utilization or behaviour of a Configuration Item, System or IT Service.

Control Objectives for Information and related Technology

See COBIT.

Control perspective

An approach to the management of IT Services, Processes, Functions, Assets etc.
There can be several different Control Perspectives on the same IT Service, Process etc., allowing different individuals or teams to focus on what is important and relevant to their specific Role.

Example Control Perspectives include Reactive and Proactive management within IT Operations, or a Lifecycle view for an Application Project team.

Control Processes

The ISO/IEC 20000 Process group that includes Change Management and Configuration Management.

Core Service

An IT Service that delivers basic Outcomes desired by one or more Customers.

See also: Supporting Service, Core Service Package.

Core Service Package

Core Service Package (CSP) is a detailed description of a Core Service that may be shared by two or more Service Level Packages.

See also: Service Package.

Cost

The amount of money spent on a specific Activity, IT Service, or Business Unit.

Costs consist of real cost (money), notional cost such as people's time, and Depreciation.

Cost Benefit Analysis

An Activity that analyses and compares the Costs and the benefits involved in one or more alternative courses of action.

See also: Business Case, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Return on Investment, Value on Investment.

Cost Centre

A Business Unit or Project to which Costs are assigned.

A Cost Centre does not charge for Services provided. An IT Service Provider can be run as a Cost Centre or a Profit Centre.

Cost Effectiveness

A measure of the balance between the Effectiveness and Cost of a Service, Process or activity.

A Cost Effective Process is one which achieves its Objectives at minimum Cost.

See also: KPI, Return on Investment, Value for Money.

Cost Element

The middle level of category to which Costs are assigned in Budgeting and Accounting.

The highest level category is Cost Type. For example a Cost Type of “people” could have cost elements of payroll, staff benefits, expenses, training, overtime etc.

Cost Elements can be further broken down to give Cost Units. For example the Cost Element “expenses” could include Cost Units of Hotels, Transport, Meals etc.

Cost Management

A general term that is used to refer to Budgeting and Accounting, sometimes used as a synonym for Financial Management

Cost Type

The highest level of category to which Costs are assigned in Budgeting and Accounting. For example hardware, software, people, accommodation, external and Transfer.

See also: Cost Element, Cost Type.

Cost Unit

The lowest level of category to which Costs are assigned, Cost Units are usually things that can be easily counted (e.g. staff numbers, software licences) or things easily measured (e.g. CPU usage, Electricity consumed).

Cost Units are included within Cost Elements. For example a Cost Element of “expenses” could include Cost Units of Hotels, Transport, Meals etc.

See also: Cost Type.

Countermeasure

Can be used to refer to any type of Control.

The term Countermeasure is most often used when referring to measures that increase Resilience, Fault Tolerance or Reliability of an IT Service.

CRAMM

A methodology and tool for analysing and managing Risks. CRAMM was developed by the UK Government, but is now privately owned.

Further information is available from: http://www.cramm.com

Crisis Management

The Process responsible for managing the wider implications of Business Continuity.

A Crisis Management team is responsible for Strategic issues such as managing media relations and shareholder confidence, and decides when to invoke Business Continuity Plans.

Critical Success Factor

Critical Success Factor (CSF) - Something that must happen if a Process, Project, Plan, or IT Service is to succeed.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used to measure the achievement of each CSF. For example a CSF of "protect IT Services when making Changes" could be measured by KPIs such as "percentage reduction of unsuccessful Changes", "percentage reduction in Changes causing Incidents" etc.

Culture

A set of values that is shared by a group of people, including expectations about how people should behave, ideas, beliefs, and practices.

See also: Vision.

Customer

Someone who buys goods or Services.

The Customer of an IT Service Provider is the person or group who defines and agrees the Service Level Targets.

The term Customers is also sometimes informally used to mean Users, for example "this is a Customer focussed Organisation".

Customer Portfolio

A database or structured Document used to record all Customers of the IT Service Provider.

The Customer Portfolio is the Business Relationship Manager's view of the Customers who receive Services from the IT Service Provider.

See also: Contract Portfolio, Service Portfolio.

Dashboard

A graphical representation of overall IT Service Performance and Availability.

Dashboard images may be updated in real-time, and can also be included in management reports and web pages.

Dashboards can be used to support Service Level Management, Event Management or Incident Diagnosis.

Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom

Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom (DIKW) is a way of understanding the relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.

DIKW shows how each of these builds on the others.

Definitive Media Library

The Definitive Media Library (DML) is one or more locations in which the definitive and approved versions of all software Configuration Items (CIs) are securely stored.

The DML may also contain associated CIs such as licenses and documentation.

The DML is a single logical storage area even if there are multiple locations. All software in the DML is under the control of Change and Release Management and is recorded in the Configuration Management System.

Only software from the DML is acceptable for use in a Release.

Deliverable

Something that must be provided to meet a commitment in a Service Level Agreement or a Contract.

Deliverable is also used in a more informal way to mean a planned output of any Process.

Demand Management

Activities that understand and influence Customer demand for Services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands.

At a Strategic level Demand Management can involve analysis of Patterns of Business Activity and User Profiles.

At a Tactical level it can involve use of Differential Charging to encourage Customers to use IT Services at less busy times.

See also: Capacity Management.

Deming Cycle

Synonym for Plan Do Check Act.

Dependency

The direct or indirect reliance of one Process or Activity upon another

Deployment

The Activity responsible for movement of new or changed hardware, software, documentation, Process, etc to the Live Environment.

Deployment is part of the Release and Deployment Management Process.

See also: Rollout.

Depreciation

A measure of the reduction in value of an Asset over its life.

This is based on wearing out, consumption or other reduction in the useful economic value.

Design

An Activity or Process that identifies Requirements and then defines a solution that is able to meet these Requirements.

See also: Service Design.

Detection

A stage in the Incident Lifecycle.

Detection results in the Incident becoming known to the Service Provider. Detection can be automatic, or can be the result of a User logging an Incident.

Development

The Process responsible for creating or modifying an IT Service or Application.

Also used to mean the Role or group that carries out Development work.

Development Environment

An Environment used to create or modify IT Services or Applications.

Development Environments are not typically subjected to the same degree of control as Test Environments or Live Environments.

See also: Development.

Diagnosis

A stage in the Incident and Problem Lifecycles.

The purpose of Diagnosis is to identify a Workaround for an Incident or the Root Cause of a Problem.

Diagnostic Script

A structured set of questions used by Service Desk staff to ensure they ask the correct questions, and to help them Classify, Resolve and assign Incidents.

Diagnostic Scripts may also be made available to Users to help them diagnose and resolve their own Incidents.

Differential Charging

A technique used to support Demand Management by charging different amounts for the same IT Service Function at different times.

Direct Cost

A cost of providing an IT Service which can be allocated in full to a specific Customer, Cost Centre, Project etc.

For example cost of providing non-shared servers or software licenses.

See also: Indirect Cost.

Directory Service

An Application that manages information about IT Infrastructure available on a network, and corresponding User access Rights.

Do Nothing

A Recovery Option. The Service Provider formally agrees with the Customer that Recovery of this IT Service will not be performed.

Document

Information in readable form.

A Document may be paper or electronic. For example a Policy statement, Service Level Agreement, Incident Record, diagram of computer room layout.

See also: Record.

Downtime

The time when a Configuration Item or IT Service is not Available during its Agreed Service Time.

The Availability of an IT Service is often calculated from Agreed Service Time and Downtime.

Driver
Something that influences Strategy, Objectives or Requirements. For example new legislation or the actions of competitors. A Driver can also be a software designed to enable communication between a computer and a peripheral device such as a Printer, Graphics Card etc.
Early Life Support

Support provided for a new or Changed IT Service for a period of time after it is Released.

During Early Life Support the IT Service Provider may review the KPIs, Service Levels and Monitoring Thresholds, and provide additional Resources for Incident and Problem Management.

Economies of scale

The reduction in average Cost that is possible from increasing the usage of an IT Service or Asset.

See also: Economies of Scope.

Economies of scope

The reduction in Cost that is allocated to an IT Service by using an existing Asset for an additional purpose. For example delivering a new IT Service from existing IT Infrastructure.

See also: Economies of Scale.

Effectiveness

A measure of whether the right amount of resources have been used to deliver a Process, Service or Activity.

An Efficient Process achieves its Objectives with the minimum amount of time, money, people or other resources.

See also: Key Performance Indicator (KPI).

Emergency Change

A Change that must be introduced as soon as possible. For example to resolve a Major Incident or implement a Security patch.

The Change Management Process will normally have a specific Procedure for handling Emergency Changes.

See also: Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB).

Emergency Change Advisory Board

As a subset of the Change Asvisory Board (CAB), the Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB) makes decisions about high-impact Emergency Changes.

The membership of the ECAB may be decided at the time a meeting is called, and depends on the nature of the Emergency Change.

In general however it should consist of more senior level staff to avoid that the ECAB becomes the vehicle to push changes through by bypassing the normal Change Management Process.

Environment

A subset of the IT Infrastructure that is used for a particular purpose. For Example: Live Environment, Test Environment, Build Environment.

It is possible for multiple Environments to share a Configuration Item, for example Test and Live Environments may use different partitions on a single mainframe computer.

Also used in the term Physical Environment to mean the accommodation, air conditioning, power system etc.

Environment is also used as a generic term to mean the external conditions that influence or affect something.

Error

A design flaw or malfunction that causes a Failure of one or more Configuration Items or IT Services.

A mistake made by a person or a faulty Process that impacts a CI or IT Service is also an Error.

Escalation

An Activity that obtains additional Resources when these are needed to meet Service Level Targets or Customer expectations.

Escalation may be needed within any IT Service Management Process, but is most commonly associated with Incident Management, Problem Management and the management of Customer complaints.

There are two types of Escalation, Functional Escalation and Hierarchic Escalation.

eSourcing Capability Model for Client Organizations

eSourcing Capability Model for Client Organizations (eSCM-SP) is a framework to help IT Service Providers develop their IT Service Management Capabilities from a Service Sourcing perspective.

eSCM-SP was developed by Carnegie Mellon University.

See also: eSCM-CL.

eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers

eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers (eSCM-SP) is a framework to help IT Service Providers develop their IT Service Management Capabilities from a Service Sourcing perspective.

eSCM-SP was developed by Carnegie Mellon University.

See also: eSCM-CL.

Estimation

The use of experience to provide an approximate value for a Metric or Cost. Estimation is also used in Capacity and Availability Management as the cheapest and least accurate Modelling method.

Evaluation

The Process responsible for assessing a new or Changed IT Service to ensure that Risks have been managed and to help determine whether to proceed with the Change.

Evaluation is also used to mean comparing an actual Outcome with the intended Outcome, or comparing one alternative with another.

Event

A change of state which has significance for the management of a Configuration Item or IT Service.

The term Event is also used to mean an Alert or notification created by any IT Service, Configuration Item or Monitoring tool.

Events typically require IT Operations personnel to take actions, and often lead to Incidents being logged.

Event Management

The Process responsible for managing Events throughout their Lifecycle.

Event Management is one of the main Activities of IT Operations.

Exception Report

A Document containing details of one or more KPIs or other important targets that have exceeded defined Thresholds.

Examples include SLA targets being missed or about to be missed, and a Performance Metric indicating a potential Capacity problem.

Expanded Incident Lifecycle

Detailed stages in the Lifecycle of an Incident.

The stages are:

  1. Detection
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Repair
  4. Recovery
  5. Restoration

The Expanded Incident Lifecycle is used to help understand all contributions to the Impact of Incidents and to Plan how these could be controlled or reduced.


External Customer

A Customer who works for a different Business to the IT Service Provider.

See also: External Service Provider, Internal Customer.

External Metric

A Metric that is used to measure the delivery of IT Service to a Customer.

External Metrics are usually defined in SLAs and reported to Customers.

See also: Internal Metric.

External Service Provider

An IT Service Provider which is part of a different Organisation to their Customer.

An IT Service Provider may have both Internal Customers and External Customers.

See also: Type III Service Provider.

External Sourcing

Synonym for Outsourcing.

Facilities Management

The Function responsible for managing the physical Environment where the IT Infrastructure is located.

Facilities Management includes all aspects of managing the physical Environment, for example power and cooling, building Access Management, and environmental Monitoring.

Failure
Loss of ability to Operate to Specification, or to deliver the required output.

The term Failure may be used when referring to IT Services, Processes, Activities, Configuration Items etc.

A Failure often causes an Incident.
 
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an approach to assessing the potential Impact of Failures.

FMEA involves analysing what would happen after Failure of each Configuration Item, all the way up to the effect on the Business.

FMEA is often used in Information Security Management and in IT Service Continuity Planning.

Fast Recovery

A Recovery Option which is also known as Hot Standby.

Provision is made to Recover the IT Service in a short period of time, typically less than 24 hours.

Fast Recovery typically uses a dedicated Fixed Facility with computer Systems, and software configured ready to run the IT Services.

Immediate Recovery, the next best option, may take up to 24 hours if there is a need to Restore data from Backups.

Fault

Synonym for Error.

Fault Tolerance

The ability of an IT Service or Configuration Item to continue to Operate correctly after Failure of a Component part.

See also: Resilience, Countermeasure.

Fault Tree Analysis

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a technique that can be used to determine the chain of Events that leads to a Problem.

Fault Tree Analysis represents a chain of Events using Boolean notation in a diagram.

Financial Management

The Function and Processes responsible for managing an IT Service Provider's Budgeting, Accounting and Charging Requirements.

First-line Support

The first level in a hierarchy of Support Groups involved in the resolution of Incidents.

Each level contains more specialist skills, or has more time or other Resources.

See also: Escalation.

Fishbone Diagram

Synonym for Ishikawa Diagram.

Fit for Purpose

An informal term used to describe a Process, Configuration Item, IT Service etc. that is capable of meeting its Objectives or Service Levels.

Being Fit for Purpose requires suitable Design, implementation, Control and maintenance.

Fixed Cost

A Cost that does not vary with IT Service usage. For example the cost of Server hardware.

See also: Variable Cost.

Fixed Facility

A permanent building, available for use when needed by an IT Service Continuity Plan.

See also: Recovery Option, Portable Facility.

Follow the Sun

A methodology for using Service Desks and Support Groups around the world to provide seamless 24 * 7 Service.

Calls, Incidents, Problems and Service Requests are passed between groups in different time zones.

Fulfilment

Performing Activities to meet a need or Requirement. For example by providing a new IT Service, or meeting a Service Request.

Function

A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more Processes or Activities. For example the Service Desk.

The term Function also has two other meanings

  • An intended purpose of a Configuration Item, Person, Team, Process, or IT Service. For example one Function of an Email Service may be to store and forward outgoing mails, one Function of a Business Process may be to dispatch goods to Customers.
  • To perform the intended purpose correctly, "The computer is Functioning"
Functional Escalation

Transferring an Incident, Problem or Change to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an Escalation.

Gap Analysis

An Activity which compares two sets of data and identifies the differences.

Gap Analysis is commonly used to compare a set of Requirements with actual delivery.

See also: Benchmarking.

Governance

Ensuring that Policies and Strategy are actually implemented, and that required Processes are correctly followed.

Governance includes defining Roles and responsibilities, measuring and reporting, and taking actions to resolve any issues identified.

Gradual Recovery

A Recovery Option which is also known as Cold Standby.

Provision is made to Recover the IT Service in a period of time greater than 72 hours.

Gradual Recovery typically uses a Portable or Fixed Facility that has environmental support and network cabling, but no computer Systems.

The hardware and software are installed as part of the IT Service Continuity Plan.

Guideline

A Document describing Best Practice, that recommends what should be done.

Compliance to a guideline is not normally enforced.

See also: Standard.

Help Desk

A point of contact for Users to log Incidents.

A Help Desk is usually more technically focussed than a Service Desk and does not provide a Single Point of Contact for all interaction.

The term Help Desk is often used as a synonym for Service Desk.
 

Hierarchic Escalation

Informing or involving more senior levels of management to assist in an Escalation.

High Availability

An approach or Design that minimises or hides the effects of Configuration Item Failure on the Users of an IT Service.

High Availability solutions are Designed to achieve an agreed level of Availability and make use of techniques such as Fault Tolerance, Resilience and fast Recovery to reduce the number of Incidents, and the Impact of Incidents.

Hot Standby

Synonym for Fast Recovery or Immediate Recovery.

Identity

A unique name that is used to identify a User, person or Role.

The Identity is used to grant Rights to that User, person, or Role. Example identities might be the username SmithJ or the Role "Change manager".

Immediate Recovery

A Recovery Option which is also known as Hot Standby.

Provision is made to Recover the IT Service with no loss of Service.

Immediate Recovery typically uses mirroring, load balancing and split site technologies.

Impact

A measure of the effect of an Incident, Problem or Change on Business Processes.

Impact is often based on how Service Levels will be affected.

Impact and Urgency are used to assign Priority.

Incident

An unplanned interruption to an IT Service or a reduction in the Quality of an IT Service.

Failure of a Configuration Item that has not yet impacted Service is also an Incident. For example Failure of one disk from a mirror set.

Incident Management

The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Incidents.

The primary Objective of Incident Management is to return the IT Service to Users as quickly as possible.

Incident Record

A Record containing the details of an Incident. Each Incident record documents the Lifecycle of a single Incident.

Indirect Cost

A Cost of providing an IT Service which cannot be allocated in full to a specific Customer. For example Cost of providing shared Servers or software licenses.

Also known as Overhead.

See also: Direct Cost.

Information Security Management

Information Security Management (ISM) is the Process that ensures the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of an Organisation's Assets, information, data and IT Services.

Information Security Management usually forms part of an Organisational approach to Security Management which has a wider scope than the IT Service Provider, and includes handling of paper, building access, phone calls etc., for the entire Organisation.

Information Security Management System

Information Security Management System (ISMS) is a framework of Policy, Processes, Standards, Guidelines and tools that ensures an Organisation can achieve its Information Security Management Objectives.

Information Security Policy

The Policy that governs the Organisation’s approach to Information Security Management.

Information Technology

Information Technology (IT) is the use of technology for the storage, communication or processing of information.

The technology typically includes computers, telecommunications, Applications and other software.

The information may include Business data, voice, images, video, etc.

Information Technology is often used to support Business Processes through IT Services.

Infrastructure Service

An IT Service that is not directly used by the Business, but is required by the IT Service Provider so they can provide other IT Services.

For example Directory Services, naming services, or communication services.

Insourcing

Synonym for Internal Sourcing.

Integrity

A security principle that ensures data and Configuration Items are only modified by authorised personnel and Activities.

Integrity considers all possible causes of modification, including software and hardware Failure, environmental Events, and human intervention.

Interactive Voice Response

Interactive Voice Response (IVR) is a form of Automatic Call Distribution that accepts User input, such as key presses and spoken commands, to identify the correct destination for incoming Calls.

Intermediate Recovery

A Recovery Option which is also known as Warm Standby.

Provision is made to Recover the IT Service in a period of time between 24 and 72 hours.

Intermediate Recovery typically uses a shared Portable or Fixed Facility that has computer Systems and network Components.

The hardware and software will need to be configured, and data will need to be restored, as part of the IT Service Continuity Plan.

Internal Customer

A Customer who works for the same Business as the IT Service Provider.

See also: Internal Service Provider, External Customer.

Internal Metric
A Metric that is used within the IT Service Provider to Monitor the Efficiency, Effectiveness or Cost Effectiveness of the IT Service Provider's internal Processes.

Internal Metrics are not normally reported to the Customer of the IT Service.

See also: External Metric.
 
Internal Rate of Return

To use the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is a technique used to help make decisions about Capital Expenditure.

IRR calculates a figure that allows two or more alternative investments to be compared. A larger IRR indicates a better investment.

See also: Net Present Value, Return on Investment.

Internal Service Provider

An IT Service Provider which is part of the same Organisation as their Customer.

An IT Service Provider may have both Internal Customers and External Customers.

See also: Type I Service Provider, Type II Service Provider, Insource.

Internal Sourcing

Using an Internal Service Provider to manage IT Services.

See also: Service Sourcing, Type I Service Provider, Type II Service Provider.

International Organization for Standardization

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the world's largest developer of Standards.

ISO is a non-governmental organization which is a network of the national standards institutes of 156 countries.

Further information about ISO is available from http://www.iso.org/

International Standards Organisation

See International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Internet Service Provider

An External Service Provider that provides access to the Internet.

Most ISPs also provide other IT Services such as web hosting.

Invocation

Initiation of the steps defined in a plan. For example initiating the IT Service Continuity Plan for one or more IT Services.

Ishikawa Diagram

A technique that helps a team to identify all the possible causes of a Problem. Originally devised by Kaoru Ishikawa, the output of this technique is a diagram that looks like a fishbone.

ISO 9000

A generic term that refers to a number of international Standards and Guidelines for Quality Management Systems.

See http://www.iso.org/ for more information.

See also: ISO.

ISO 9001

An international Standard for Quality Management Systems.

See also:
ISO 9000, Standard.

ISO/IEC 17799

ISO Code of Practice for Information Security Management.

See also: Standard.

ISO/IEC 20000

ISO Specification and Code of Practice for IT Service Management.

ISO/IEC 20000 is aligned with ITIL Best Practice.

ISO/IEC 27001

ISO Specification for Information Security Management.

The corresponding Code of Practice is ISO/IEC 17799.

See also: Standard.

IT Directorate

Senior Management within a Service Provider, charged with developing and delivering IT services.

Most commonly used in UK Government departments.

IT Infrastructure

All of the hardware, software, networks, facilities etc. that are required to Develop, Test, deliver, Monitor, Control or support IT Services.

The term IT Infrastructure includes all of the Information Technology but not the associated people, Processes and documentation.

IT Operations

Activities carried out by IT Operations Control, including Console Management, Job Scheduling, Backup and Restore, and Print and Output Management.

IT Operations is also used as a synonym for Service Operation.

IT Operations Control
The Function responsible for Monitoring and Control of the IT Services and IT Infrastructure.

See also: Operations Bridge.
 
IT Operations Management IT Operations Management

The Function within an IT Service Provider which performs the daily Activities needed to manage IT Services and the supporting IT Infrastructure.

IT Operations Management includes IT Operations Control and Facilities Management.

IT Service

A Service provided to one or more Customers by an IT Service Provider.

An IT Service is based on the use of Information Technology and supports the Customer's Business Processes.

An IT Service is made up from a combination of people, Processes and technology and should be defined in a Service Level Agreement.

IT Service Continuity Management

IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) is the Process responsible for managing Risks that could seriously impact IT Services.

ITSCM ensures that the IT Service Provider can always provide minimum agreed Service Levels, by reducing the Risk to an acceptable level and Planning for the Recovery of IT Services.

ITSCM should be designed to support Business Continuity Management.

IT Service Continuity Plan

A Plan defining the steps required to Recover one or more IT Services.

The Plan will also identify the triggers for Invocation, people to be involved, communications etc.

The IT Service Continuity Plan should be part of a Business Continuity Plan.

IT Service Management

IT Service Management (ITSM) is the implementation and management of Quality IT Services that meet the needs of the Business.

IT Service Management is performed by IT Service Providers through an appropriate mix of people, Process and Information Technology.

See also: Service Management.

IT Service Management Forum

IT Service Management Forum (itSMF)

The IT Service Management Forum is an independent Organisation dedicated to promoting a professional approach to IT Service Management.

The itSMF is a not-for-profit membership Organisation with representation in many countries around the world (itSMF Chapters).

The itSMF and its membership contribute to the development of ITIL and associated IT Service Management Standards.

See: http://www.itsmf.com/ for more information.

IT Service Provider

A Service Provider that provides IT Services to Internal Customers or External Customers.

IT Steering Group

The IT Steering Group (ISG) is a formal group that is responsible for ensuring that Business and IT Service Provider Strategies and Plans are closely aligned.

An IT Steering Group includes senior representatives from the Business and the IT Service Provider.

ITIL

A set of Best Practice guidance for IT Service Management.

ITIL is owned by the OGC and consists of a series of publications giving guidance on the provision of Quality IT Services, and on the Processes and facilities needed to support them.

See: http://www.itil.co.uk/ for more information.

Job Description

A Document which defines the Roles, responsibilities, skills and knowledge required by a particular person.

One Job Description can include multiple Roles, for example the Roles of Configuration Manager and Change Manager may be carried out by one person.

Job Scheduling

Planning and managing the execution of software tasks that are required as part of an IT Service.

Job Scheduling is carried out by IT Operations Management, and is often automated using software tools that run batch or online tasks at specific times of the day, week, month or year.

Kano Model

A Model developed by Noriaki Kano that is used to help understand Customer preferences.

The Kano Model considers Attributes of an IT Service grouped into areas such as Basic Factors, Excitement Factors, Performance Factors etc.

Kepner & Tregoe Analysis

A structured approach to Problem solving.

The Problem is analysed in terms of what, where, when and extent.

Possible causes are identified. The most probable cause is tested. The true cause is verified.

Key Performance Indicator

Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a Metric that is used to help manage a Process, IT Service or Activity.

Many Metrics may be measured, but only the most important of these are defined as KPIs and used to actively manage and report on the Process, IT Service or Activity.

KPIs should be selected to ensure that Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Cost Effectiveness are all managed.

See also: Critical Success Factor.

Knowledge Base

A logical database containing the data used by the Service Knowledge Management System.

Knowledge Management

The Process responsible for gathering, analysing, storing and sharing knowledge and information within an Organisation.

The primary purpose of Knowledge Management is to improve Efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge.

See also: Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom, Service Knowledge Management System.

Known Error

A Problem that has a documented Root Cause and a Workaround.

Known Errors are created and managed throughout their Lifecycle by Problem Management.

Known Errors may also be identified by Development or Suppliers.

Known Error Database

Known Error Database (KEDB) is a database containing all Known Error Records. This database is created by Problem Management and used by Incident and Problem Management.

The Known Error Database is part of the Service Knowledge Management System.

Known Error Record

A Record containing the details of a Known Error.

Each Known Error Record documents the Lifecycle of a Known Error, including the Status, Root Cause and Workaround.

In some implementations a Known Error is documented using additional fields in a Problem Record.

Lifecycle

The various stages in the life of an IT Service, Configuration Item, Incident, Problem, Change etc.

The Lifecycle defines the Categories for Status and the Status transitions that are permitted. For example:

  • The Lifecycle of an Application includes Requirements, Design, Build, Deploy, Operate, Optimise.
  • The Expanded Incident Lifecycle includes Detect, Respond, Diagnose, Repair, Recover, Restore.
  • The lifecycle of a Server may include: Ordered, Received, In Test, Live, Disposed etc.
Line of Service

The Line of Service (LOS) is a Core Service or Supporting Service that has multiple Service Level Packages.

A line of Service is managed by a Product Manager and each Service Level Package is designed to support a particular market segment.

Live

Refers to an IT Service or Configuration Item that is being used to deliver Service to a Customer.

Live Environment

A controlled Environment containing Live Configuration Items used to deliver IT Services to Customers.

Maintainability

A measure of how quickly and Effectively a Configuration Item or IT Service can be restored to normal working after a Failure.

Maintainability is often measured and reported as MTRS.

Maintainability is also used in the context of Software or IT Service Development to mean ability to be Changed or Repaired easily.

Major Incident

The highest Category of Impact for an Incident. A Major Incident results in significant disruption to the Business.

Managed Services

A perspective on IT Services which emphasizes the fact that they are managed.

The term Managed Services is also used as a synonym for Outsourced IT Services.

Management Information

Information that is used to support decision making by managers.

Management Information is often generated automatically by tools supporting the various IT Service Management Processes.

Management Information often includes the values of KPIs such as "Percentage of Changes leading to Incidents", or "first time fix rate".

Management of Risk

Management of Risk (MoR) - the OGC methodology for managing Risks.

MoR includes all the Activities required to identify and Control the exposure to Risk which may have an impact on the achievement of an Organisation’s Business Objectives.

See: http://www.m-o-r.org/ for more details.

Management System

The framework of Policy, Processes and Functions that ensures an Organisation can achieve its Objectives.

Manual Workaround

A Workaround that requires manual intervention.

Manual Workaround is also used as the name of a Recovery Option in which The Business Process Operates without the use of IT Services.

This is a temporary measure and is usually combined with another Recovery Option.

Marginal Cost

The Cost of continuing to provide the IT Service.

Marginal Cost does not include investment already made, for example the cost of developing new software and delivering training.

Market Space

All opportunities that an IT Service Provider could exploit to meet business needs of Customers.

The Market Space identifies the possible IT Services that an IT Service Provider may wish to consider delivering.

Maturity

A measure of the Reliability, Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Process, Function, Organisation etc.

The most mature Processes and Functions are formally aligned to Business Objectives and Strategy, and are supported by a framework for continual improvement.

Maturity Level

A named level in a Maturity model such as the Carnegie Mellon Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI).

Mean Time Between Failures

The Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) is the Metric for measuring and reporting Reliability.

MTBF is the average time that a Configuration Item or IT Service can perform its agreed Function without interruption.

This is measured from when the CI or IT Service starts working, until it next fails.

Mean Time Between Service Incidents

The Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) is the average time taken to repair a Configuration Item (CI) or IT Service after a Failure.

MTTR is measured from when the CI or IT Service fails until it is Repaired.

MTTR does not include the time required to Recover or Restore. MTTR is sometimes incorrectly used to mean Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS).

Mean Time to Restore Service

The Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS) is the average time taken to Restore a Configuration Item or IT Service after a Failure.

MTRS is measured from when the CI or IT Service fails until it is fully Restored and delivering its normal functionality.

See also: Maintainability, Mean Time to Repair.

Metric

Something that is measured and reported to help manage a Process, IT Service or Activity.

See also: KPI.

Middleware

Software that connects two or more software Components or Applications.

Middleware is usually purchased from a Supplier, rather than developed within the IT Service Provider.

See also: Off the Shelf.

Mission Statement

The Mission Statement of an Organisation is a short but complete description of the overall purpose and intentions of that Organisation.

It states what is to be achieved, but not how this should be done.

Modelling

A technique that is used to predict the future behaviour of a System, Process, IT Service, Configuration Item etc.

Modelling is commonly used in Financial Management, Capacity Management and Availability Management.

Monitor Control Loop

Monitoring the output of a Task, Process, IT Service or Configuration Item; comparing this output to a predefined norm; and taking appropriate action based on this comparison.

Monitoring

Repeated observation of a Configuration Item, IT Service or Process to detect Events and to ensure that the current status is known.

Near-Shore

Provision of Services from a country near the country where the Customer is based.

This can be the provision of an IT Service, or of supporting Functions such as Service Desk.

See also: On-shore, Off-shore.

Net Present Value

Net Present Value (NPV) - A technique used to help make decisions about Capital Expenditure.

NPV compares cash inflows to cash outflows. Positive NPV indicates that an investment is worthwhile.

See also: Internal Rate of Return, Return on Investment.

Notional Charging

An approach to Charging for IT Services.

Charges to Customers are calculated and Customers are informed of the charge, but no money is actually transferred.

Notional Charging is sometimes introduced to ensure that Customers are aware of the Costs they incur, or as a stage during the introduction of real Charging.

Objective

The defined purpose or aim of a Process, an Activity or an Organisation as a whole.

Objectives are usually expressed as measurable targets. The term Objective is also informally used to mean a Requirement.

See also: Outcome.

Off the Shelf

Synonym for Commercial Off the Shelf.

Office of Government Commerce

Office of Government Commerce (OGC) - Owns the ITIL brand (copyright and trademark).

OGC is a UK Government department that supports the delivery of the government's procurement agenda through its work in collaborative procurement and in raising levels of procurement skills and capability with departments.

It also provides support for complex public sector projects.

Office of Public Sector Information

Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI)

OPSI license the Crown Copyright material used in the ITIL publications. They are a UK Government department who provide online access to UK legislation, license the re-use of Crown copyright material, manage the Information Fair Trader Scheme, maintain the Government’s Information Asset Register and provide advice and guidance on official publishing and Crown copyright.

Off-shore

Provision of Services from a location outside the country where the Customer is based, often in a different continent.

This can be the provision of an IT Service, or of supporting Functions such as Service Desk.

See also: On-shore, Near-shore.

On-shore

Provision of Services from a location within the country where the Customer is based.

See also: Off-shore, Near-shore.

Operate

To perform as expected.

A Process or Configuration Item is said to Operate if it is delivering the Required outputs.

Operate also means to perform one or more Operations. For example, to Operate a computer is to do the day-to-day Operations needed for it to perform as expected.

Operation

Day-to-day management of an IT Service, System, or other Configuration Item.

Operation is also used to mean any pre-defined Activity or Transaction. For example loading a magnetic tape, accepting money at a point of sale, or reading data from a disk drive.

Operational

The lowest of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic, Tactical, Operational).

Operational Activities include the day-to-day or short term Planning or delivery of a Business Process or IT Service Management Process.

The term Operational is also a synonym for Live.

Operational Cost

Cost resulting from running the IT Services.

Often repeating payments. For example staff costs, hardware maintenance and electricity (also known as "current expenditure" or "revenue expenditure").

See also: Capital Expenditure.

Operational Expenditure

Operational Expenditure (OPEX) is a Synonym for Operational Cost.

Operational Level Agreement

Operational Level Agreement (OLA) is an Agreement between an IT Service Provider and another part of the same Organisation.

An OLA supports the IT Service Provider's delivery of IT Services to Customers.

The OLA defines the goods or Services to be provided and the responsibilities of both parties. For example there could be an OLA

  • between the IT Service Provider and a procurement department to obtain hardware in agreed times
  • between the Service Desk and a Support Group to provide Incident Resolution in agreed times.
See also:

Service Level Agreement.


Operations Bridge

A physical location where IT Services and IT Infrastructure are monitored and managed.

Operations Control

Synonym for IT Operations Control.

Operations Management

Synonym for IT Operations Management.

Opportunity Cost

A Cost that is used in deciding between investment choices.

Opportunity Cost represents the revenue that would have been generated by using the Resources in a different way.

For example the Opportunity Cost of purchasing a new Server may include not carrying out a Service Improvement activity that the money could have been spent on.

Opportunity cost analysis is used as part of a decision making processes, but is not treated as an actual Cost in any financial statement.

Optimise

Review, Plan and request Changes, in order to obtain the maximum Efficiency and Effectiveness from a Process, Configuration Item, Application etc.

Organisation

A company, legal entity or other institution.

Examples of Organisations that are not companies include International Standards Organisation or itSMF.

The term Organisation is sometimes used to refer to any entity which has People, Resources and Budgets. For example a Project or Business Unit.

Outcome

The result of carrying out an Activity; following a Process; delivering an IT Service etc.

The term Outcome is used to refer to intended results, as well as to actual results.

See also: Objective.

Outsourcing

Using an External Service Provider to manage IT Services.

See also: Service Sourcing, Type III Service Provider

Overhead

Synonym for Indirect cost

Pain Value Analysis

A technique used to help identify the Business Impact of one or more Problems.

A formula is used to calculate Pain Value based on the number of Users affected, the duration of the Downtime, the Impact on each User, and the cost to the Business (if known).

Pareto Principle

A technique used to prioritise Activities.

The Pareto Principle says that 80% of the value of any Activity is created with 20% of the effort.

Pareto Analysis is also used in Problem Management to prioritise possible Problem causes for investigation

Partnership

A relationship between two Organisations which involves working closely together for common goals or mutual benefit.

The IT Service Provider should have a Partnership with the Business, and with Third Parties who are critical to the delivery of IT Services.

See also: Value Network.

Passive Monitoring
Monitoring of a Configuration Item, an IT Service or a Process that relies on an Alert or notification to discover the current status.

See also: Active Monitoring.
 
Pattern of Business Activity

Pattern of Business Activity (PBA) - A Workload profile of one or more Business Activities.

Patterns of Business Activity are used to help the IT Service Provider understand and plan for different levels of Business Activity.

See also: User Profile.

Percentage utilisation

The amount of time that a Component is busy over a given period of time. For example, if a CPU is busy for 1800 seconds in a one hour period, its utilisation is 50%

Performance

A measure of what is achieved or delivered by a System, person, team, Process, or IT Service.

Performance Anatomy

An approach to Organisational Culture that integrates, and actively manages, leadership and strategy, people development, technology enablement, performance management and innovation.

Performance Management

The Process responsible for day-to-day Capacity Management Activities.

These include Monitoring, Threshold detection, Performance analysis and Tuning, and implementing Changes related to Performance and Capacity.

Pilot

A limited Deployment of an IT Service, a Release or a Process to the Live Environment. A Pilot is used to reduce Risk and to gain User feedback and Acceptance.

See also: Test, Evaluation.

Plan

A detailed proposal which describes the Activities and Resources needed to achieve an Objective.

For example a Plan to implement a new IT Service or Process.

ISO/IEC 20000 requires a Plan for the management of each IT Service Management Process.

Plan-Do-Check-Act

A four stage cycle for Process management, attributed to Edward Deming. Plan-Do-Check-Act is also called the Deming Cycle.

  1. PLAN: Design or revise Processes that support the IT Services.
  2. DO: Implement the Plan and manage the Processes.
  3. CHECK: Measure the Processes and IT Services, compare with Objectives and produce reports
  4. ACT: Plan and implement Changes to improve the Processes.
Planned Downtime

Agreed time when an IT Service will not be available.

Planned Downtime is often used for maintenance, upgrades and testing.

See also: Change Window, Downtime.

Planning

An Activity responsible for creating one or more Plans. For example, Capacity Planning.

PMBOK

A Project management Standard maintained and published by the Project Management Institute.

PMBOK stands for Project Management Body of Knowledge.

See: http://www.pmi.org/ for more information.
See: PRINCE2.

Policy

Formally documented management expectations and intentions.

Policies are used to direct decisions, and to ensure consistent and appropriate development and implementation of Processes, Standards, Roles, Activities, IT Infrastructure etc.

Portable Facility

A prefabricated building, or a large vehicle, owned or provided by a Third Party and moved to a site when needed by an IT Service Continuity Plan.

See also: Recovery Option, Fixed Facility.

Post Implementation Review

Post Implementation Review (PIR) is a Review that takes place after a Change or a Project has been implemented.

A PIR determines if the Change or Project was successful, and identifies opportunities for improvement.

Practice

A way of working, or a way in which work must be done.

Practices can include Activities, Processes, Functions, Standards and Guidelines.

See also: Best Practice.

Prerequisite for Success

Prerequisite for Success (PFS) - An Activity that needs to be completed, or a condition that needs to be met, to enable successful implementation of a Plan or Process.

A PFS is often an output from one Process that is a required input to another Process.

Pricing

The Activity for establishing how much Customers will be Charged.

PRINCE2

The standard UK government methodology for Project management.

See: http://www.ogc.gov.uk/prince2/ for more information.
See: PMBOK.

Priority

A Category used to identify the relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change.

Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken. For example the SLA may state that Priority2 Incidents must be resolved within 12 hours.

Proactive Monitoring

Monitoring that looks for patterns of Events to predict possible future Failures.
See Reactive Monitoring.

Proactive Problem Management

Part of the Problem Management Process.

The Objective of Proactive Problem Management is to identify Problems that might otherwise be missed.

Proactive Problem Management analyses Incident Records, and uses data collected by other IT Service Management Processes to identify trends or significant Problems.

Problem

A cause of one or more Incidents.

The cause is not usually known at the time a Problem Record is created, and the Problem Management Process is responsible for further investigation.

Problem Management

The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Problems.

The primary Objectives of Problem Management are to prevent Incidents from happening, and to minimise the Impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented.

Problem Record

A Record containing the details of a Problem. Each Problem Record documents the Lifecycle of a single Problem.

Procedure

A Document containing steps that specify how to achieve an Activity. Procedures are defined as part of Processes.

See also: Work Instruction.

Process

A structured set of Activities designed to accomplish a specific Objective.

A Process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs.

A Process may include any of the Roles, responsibilities, tools and management Controls required to reliably deliver the outputs.

A Process may define Policies, Standards, Guidelines, Activities, and Work Instructions if they are needed.

Process Control

The Activity of planning and regulating a Process, with the Objective of performing the Process in an Effective, Efficient, and consistent manner.

Process Manager

A Role responsible for Operational management of a Process.

The Process Manager's responsibilities include Planning and co-ordination of all Activities required to carry out, monitor and report on the Process.

There may be several Process Managers for one Process, for example regional Change Managers or IT Service Continuity Managers for each data centre.

The Process Manager Role is often assigned to the person who carries out the Process Owner Role, but the two Roles may be separate in larger Organisations.

Process Owner

A Role responsible for ensuring that a Process is Fit for Purpose.

The Process Owner’s responsibilities include sponsorship, Design, Change Management and continual improvement of the Process and its Metrics.

This Role is often assigned to the same person who carries out the Process Manager Role, but the two Roles may be separate in larger Organisations.

There can only be one Process owner.

Production Environment

Synonym for Live Environment.

Profit Centre

A Business Unit which charges for Services provided.

A Profit Centre can be created with the objective of making a profit, recovering Costs, or running at a loss.

An IT Service Provider can be run as a Cost Centre or a Profit Centre.

pro-forma

A template, or example Document containing example data that will be replaced with the real values when these are available.

Programme

A number of Projects and Activities that are planned and managed together to achieve an overall set of related Objectives and other Outcomes

Project

A temporary Organisation, with people and other Assets required to achieve an Objective or other Outcome.

Each Project has a Lifecycle that typically includes initiation, Planning, execution, Closure etc.

Projects are usually managed using a formal methodology such as PRINCE2.

Projected Service Outage

Projected Service Outage (PSO) - A Document that identifies the effect of planned Changes, maintenance Activities and Test Plans on agreed Service Levels

PRojects IN Controlled Environments

PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2)

See: PRINCE2

Qualification

An Activity that ensures that IT Infrastructure is appropriate, and correctly configured, to support an Application or IT Service.

See also: Validation.

Quality

The ability of a product, Service, or Process to provide the intended value.

For example, a hardware Component can be considered to be of high Quality if it performs as expected and delivers the required Reliability.

Process Quality also requires an ability to monitor Effectiveness and Efficiency, and to improve them if necessary.

See also: Quality Management System.

Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance (QA) - The Process responsible for ensuring that the Quality of a product, Service or Process will provide its intended Value.

Quality Management System

Quality Management System (QMS) - The set of Processes responsible for ensuring that all work carried out by an Organisation is of a suitable Quality to reliably meet Business Objectives or Service Levels.

See also: ISO 9000.

Quick Win

An improvement Activity which is expected to provide a Return on Investment in a short period of time with relatively small Cost and effort.

See also: Pareto Principle.

RACI

A Model used to help define Roles and Responsibilities.

RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed.

See also: Stakeholder.

Reactive Monitoring

Monitoring that takes action in response to an Event. For example submitting a batch job when the previous job completes, or logging an Incident when an Error occurs.

See also: Proactive Monitoring.

Reciprocal Arrangement

A Recovery Option.

An agreement between two Organisations to share resources in an emergency. For example, Computer Room space or use of a mainframe.

Record

A Document containing the results or other output from a Process or Activity.

Records are evidence of the fact that an Activity took place and may be paper or electronic. For example, an Audit report, an Incident Record, or the minutes of a meeting.

Recovery

Returning a Configuration Item or an IT Service to a working state.

Recovery of an IT Service often includes recovering data to a known consistent state.

After Recovery, further steps may be needed before the IT Service can be made available to the Users (Restoration).

Recovery Option

A Strategy for responding to an interruption to Service. Commonly used Strategies are Do Nothing, Manual Workaround, Reciprocal Arrangement, Gradual Recovery, Intermediate Recovery, Fast Recovery, Immediate Recovery.

Recovery Options may make use of dedicated facilities, or Third Party facilities shared by multiple Businesses.

Recovery Point Objective

Recovery Point Objective (RPO) - The maximum amount of data that may be lost when Service is Restored after an interruption.

Recovery Point Objective is expressed as a length of time before the Failure. For example a Recovery Point Objective of one day may be supported by daily Backups, and up to 24 hours of data may be lost.

Recovery Point Objectives for each IT Service should be negotiated, agreed and documented, and used as Requirements for Service Design and IT Service Continuity Plans.

Recovery Time Objective

The maximum time allowed for recovery of an IT Service following an interruption.

The Service Level to be provided may be less than normal Service Level Targets.

Recovery Time Objectives for each IT Service should be negotiated, agreed and documented.

See also: Business Impact Analysis.

Redundancy

Synonym for Fault Tolerance.

The term Redundant also has a generic meaning of obsolete, or no longer needed

Relationship

A connection or interaction between two people or things.

In Business Relationship Management it is the interaction between the IT Service Provider and the Business.

In Configuration Management it is a link between two Configuration Items that identifies a dependency or connection between them. For example Applications may be linked to the Servers they run on, IT Services have many links to all the CIs that contribute to them.

Relationship Processes

The ISO/IEC 20000 Process group that includes Business Relationship Management and Supplier Management.

Release

A collection of hardware, software, documentation, Processes or other Components required to implement one or more approved Changes to IT Services.

The contents of each Release are managed, Tested, and Deployed as a single entity.

Release and Deployment Management

The Process responsible for both Release Management and Deployment.

Release Identification

A naming convention used to uniquely identify a Release.

The Release Identification typically includes a reference to the Configuration Item and a version number. For example Microsoft Office 2003 SR2.

Release Management

The Process responsible for Planning, scheduling and controlling the movement of Releases to Test and Live Environments.

The primary Objective of Release Management is to ensure that the integrity of the Live Environment is protected and that the correct Components are released.

Release Management is part of the Release and Deployment Management Process.

Release Process

The name used by ISO/IEC 20000 for the Process group that includes Release Management.

This group does not include any other Processes.

Release Process is also used as a synonym for Release Management Process.

Release Record

A Record in the CMDB that defines the content of a Release.

A Release Record has Relationships with all Configuration Items that are affected by the Release.

Release Unit

Components of an IT Service that are normally Released together.

A Release Unit typically includes sufficient Components to perform a useful Function. For example one Release Unit could be a Desktop PC, including Hardware, Software, Licenses, Documentation etc.

A different Release Unit may be the complete Payroll Application, including IT Operations Procedures and User training.

Release Window

Synonym for Change Window.

Reliability

A measure of how long a Configuration Item or IT Service can perform its agreed Function without interruption.

Usually measured as MTBF or MTBSI.

The term Reliability can also be used to state how likely it is that a Process, Function etc. will deliver its required outputs.

See also: Availability.

Remediation

Recovery to a known state after a failed Change or Release.

This is sometimes also referred to as back-out.

Repair

The replacement or correction of a failed Configuration Item (CI).

Request for Change

Request for Change (RFC) - A formal proposal for a Change to be made.

An RFC includes details of the proposed Change, and may be recorded on paper or electronically.

The term RFC is often misused to mean a Change Record, or the Change itself.

Request Fulfilment

The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Service Requests.

Requirement

A formal statement of what is needed. For example a Service Level Requirement, a Project Requirement or the required Deliverables for a Process.

See also: Statement of Requirements.

Resilience

The ability of a Configuration Item or IT Service to resist Failure or to Recover quickly following a Failure.

For example, an armoured cable will resist failure when put under stress.

See also: Fault Tolerance.

Resolution

Action taken to repair the Root Cause of an Incident or Problem, or to implement a Workaround.

In ISO/IEC 20000, Resolution Processes is the Process group that includes Incident and Problem Management.

Resolution Processes

The ISO/IEC 20000 Process group that includes Incident Management and Problem Management.

Resource

A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure, people, money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT Service.

Resources are considered to be Assets of an Organisation.

See also: Capability, Service Asset.

Response Time

A measure of the time taken to complete an Operation or Transaction.

Used in Capacity Management as a measure of IT Infrastructure Performance, and in Incident Management as a measure of the time taken to answer the phone, or to start Diagnosis.

Responsiveness

A measurement of the time taken to respond to something.

This could be Response Time of a Transaction, or the speed with which an IT Service Provider responds to an Incident or Request for Change etc.

Restoration of Service

See Restore.

Restore
Taking action to return an IT Service to the Users after Repair and Recovery from an Incident.

This is the primary Objective of Incident Management.
 
Retire

Permanent removal of an IT Service, or other Configuration Item, from the Live Environment.

Retired is a stage in the Lifecycle of many Configuration Items.

Return on Investment

Return on Investment (ROI) - A measurement of the expected benefit of an investment.

In the simplest sense it is the net profit of an investment divided by the net worth of the assets invested.

See also: Net Present Value, Value on Investment.

Return to Normal

The phase of an IT Service Continuity Plan during which full normal operations are resumed.

For example, if an alternate data centre has been in use, then this phase will bring the primary data centre back into operation, and restore the ability to invoke IT Service Continuity Plans again.

Review
An evaluation of a Change, Problem, Process, Project etc.

Reviews are typically carried out at predefined points in the Lifecycle, and especially after Closure.

The purpose of a Review is to ensure that all Deliverables have been provided, and to identify opportunities for improvement.

See also: Post Implementation Review.
 
Rights

Entitlements, or permissions, granted to a User or Role. For example the Right to modify particular data, or to authorize a Change.

Risk

A possible Event that could cause harm or loss, or affect the ability to achieve Objectives.

A Risk is measured by the probability of a Threat, the Vulnerability of the Asset to that Threat, and the Impact it would have if it occurred.

Risk Assessment

The initial steps of Risk Management.

Analysing the value of Assets to the business, identifying Threats to those Assets, and evaluating how Vulnerable each Asset is to those Threats.

Risk Assessment can be quantitative (based on numerical data) or qualitative.

Risk Management

The Process responsible for identifying, assessing and controlling Risks.

See also: Risk Assessment.

Role
A set of responsibilities, Activities and authorities granted to a person or team.

A Role is defined in a Process. One person or team may have multiple Roles, for example the Roles of Configuration Manager and Change Manager may be carried out by a single person.
 
Rollout

Synonym for Deployment. Most often used to refer to complex or phased Deployments or Deployments to multiple locations.

Root Cause

The underlying or original cause of an Incident or Problem.

Root Cause Analysis

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) - An Activity that identifies the Root Cause of an Incident or Problem.

RCA typically concentrates on IT Infrastructure failures.

See also: Service Failure Analysis.

Running Costs

Synonym for Operational Costs

Scalability

The ability of an IT Service, Process, Configuration Item etc. to perform its agreed Function when the Workload or Scope changes.

Scope

The boundary, or extent, to which a Process, Procedure, Certification, Contract etc. applies.

For example the Scope of Change Management may include all Live IT Services and related Configuration Items, the Scope of an ISO/IEC 20000 Certificate may include all IT Services delivered out of a named data centre.

Second-line Support

The second level in a hierarchy of Support Groups involved in the resolution of Incidents and investigation of Problems.

Each level contains more specialist skills, or has more time or other Resources.

Security

See Information Security Management

Security Management

Synonym for Information Security Management

Security Policy

Synonym for Information Security Policy

Separation of Concerns

Separation of Concerns (SoC) - An approach to Designing a solution or IT Service that divides the problem into pieces that can be solved independently.

This approach separates "what" is to be done from "how" it is to be done.

Server

A computer that is connected to a network and provides software Functions that are used by other computers.

Service

A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating Outcomes Customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific Costs and Risks.

Service Acceptance Criteria

Service Acceptance Criteria (SAC) - A set of criteria used to ensure that an IT Service meets its functionality and Quality Requirements and that the IT Service Provider is ready to Operate the new IT Service when it has been Deployed.

See also: Acceptance.

Service Analytics

A technique used in the Assessment of the Business Impact of Incidents.

Service Analytics Models the dependencies between Configuration Items, and the dependencies of IT Services on Configuration Items.

Service Asset

Any Capability or Resource of a Service Provider.
See Asset.

Service Asset and Configuration Management

Service Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) - The Process responsible for both Configuration Management and Asset Management.

Service Capacity Management

Service Capacity Management (SCM) - The Activity responsible for understanding the Performance and Capacity of IT Services.

The Resources used by each IT Service and the pattern of usage over time are collected, recorded, and analysed for use in the Capacity Plan.

See also: Business Capacity Management, Component Capacity Management.

Service Catalogue

A database or structured Document with information about all Live IT Services, including those available for Deployment.

The Service Catalogue is the only part of the Service Portfolio published to Customers, and is used to support the sale and delivery of IT Services.

The Service Catalogue includes information about deliverables, prices, contact points, ordering and request Processes.

See also: Contract Portfolio.

Service Continuity Management

Synonym for IT Service Continuity Management.

Service Contract

A Contract to deliver one or more IT Services.

The term Service Contract is also used to mean any Agreement to deliver IT Services, whether this is a legal Contract or an SLA.

See also: Contract Portfolio.

Service Culture

A Customer oriented Culture.

The major Objectives of a Service Culture are Customer satisfaction and helping the Customer to achieve their Business Objectives.

Service Design

A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service.

Service Design includes a number of Processes and Functions and is the title of one of the Core ITIL publications.

See also: Design.

Service Design Package

Document(s) defining all aspects of an IT Service and its Requirements through each stage of its Lifecycle.

A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT Service, major Change, or IT Service Retirement.

Service Desk

The Single Point of Contact between the Service Provider and the Users.

A typical Service Desk manages Incidents and Service Requests, and also handles communication with the Users.

Service Failure Analysis

Service Failure Analysis (SFA) - An Activity that identifies underlying causes of one or more IT Service interruptions.

SFA identifies opportunities to improve the IT Service Provider's Processes and tools, and not just the IT Infrastructure.

SFA is a time constrained, project-like activity, rather than an ongoing process of analysis.

See also: Root Cause Analysis.

Service Hours

An agreed time period when a particular IT Service should be Available.

For example, "Monday-Friday 08:00 to 17:00 except public holidays".

Service Hours should be defined in a Service Level Agreement.

Service Improvement Plan

Service Improvement Plan (SIP) - A formal Plan to implement improvements to a Process or IT Service.

Service Knowledge Management System

Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) - A set of tools and databases that are used to manage knowledge and information.

The SKMS includes the Configuration Management System, as well as other tools and databases.

The SKMS stores, manages, updates, and presents all information that an IT Service Provider needs to manage the full Lifecycle of IT Services.

Service Level

Measured and reported achievement against one or more Service Level Targets.

The term Service Level is sometimes used informally to mean Service Level Target.

Service Level Agreement Service Level Agreement

Service Level Agreement (SLA) - An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a Customer.

The SLA describes the IT Service, documents Service Level Targets, and specifies the responsibilities of the IT Service Provider and the Customer.

A single SLA may cover multiple IT Services or multiple Customers.

See also: Operational Level Agreement.

Service Level Management

Service Level Management (SLM) - The Process responsible for negotiating Service Level Agreements, and ensuring that these are met.

SLM is responsible for ensuring that all IT Service Management Processes, Operational Level Agreements, and Underpinning Contracts, are appropriate for the agreed Service Level Targets.

SLM monitors and reports on Service Levels, and holds regular Customer reviews.

Service Level Package


Service Level Package (SLP) - A defined level of Utility and Warranty for a particular Service Package.

Each SLP is designed to meet the needs of a particular Pattern of Business Activity.

See also: Line of Service.

Service Level Requirement

Service Level Requirement (SLR) - A Customer Requirement for an aspect of an IT Service.

SLRs are based on Business Objectives and are used to negotiate agreed Service Level Targets.

Service Level Target

A commitment that is documented in a Service Level Agreement.

Service Level Targets are based on Service Level Requirements, and are needed to ensure that the IT Service design is Fit for Purpose.

Service Level Targets should be SMART, and are usually based on KPIs.

Service Maintenance Objective

The expected time that a Configuration Item will be unavailable due to planned maintenance Activity.

Service Management

Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services.

Service Management Lifecycle

An approach to IT Service Management that emphasizes the importance of coordination and Control across the various Functions, Processes, and Systems necessary to manage the full Lifecycle of IT Services.

The Service Management Lifecycle approach considers the Strategy, Design, Transition, Operation and Continuous Improvement of IT Services.

Service Manager

A manager who is responsible for managing the end-to-end Lifecycle of one or more IT Services.

The term Service Manager is also used to mean any manager within the IT Service Provider.

Most commonly used to refer to a Business Relationship Manager, a Process Manager, an Account Manager or a senior manager with responsibility for IT Services overall.

Service Operation

A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service.

Service Operation includes a number of Processes and Functions and is the title of one of the Core ITIL publications.

See also: Operation.

Service Owner

A Role which is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service.

Service Package

A detailed description of an IT Service that is available to be delivered to Customers.

A Service Package includes a Service Level Package and one or more Core Services and Supporting Services.

Service Pipeline

A database or structured Document listing all IT Services that are under consideration or Development, but are not yet available to Customers.

The Service Pipeline provides a Business view of possible future IT Services and is part of the Service Portfolio which is not normally published to Customers.

Service Portfolio

The complete set of Services that are managed by a Service Provider.

The Service Portfolio is used to manage the entire Lifecycle of all Services, and includes three Categories:

  1. Service Pipeline (proposed or in Development);
  2. Service Catalogue (Live or available for Deployment);
  3. and Retired Services.
See also:

Service Portfolio Management, Contract Portfolio.


Service Portfolio Management

Service Portfolio Management (SPM) - The Process responsible for managing the Service Portfolio.

Service Portfolio Management considers Services in terms of the Business value that they provide.

Service Potential

The total possible value of the overall Capabilities and Resources of the IT Service Provider.

Service Provider

An Organisation supplying Services to one or more Internal Customers or External Customers.

Service Provider is often used as an abbreviation for IT Service Provider.

See also: Type I Service Provider, Type II Service Provider, Type III Service Provider.

Service Provider Interface

Service Provider Interface (SPI) - An interface between the IT Service Provider and a User, Customer, Business Process, or a Supplier.

Analysis of Service Provider Interfaces helps to coordinate end-to-end management of IT Services.

Service Provisioning Optimization

Service Provisioning Optimization (SPO) - Analysing the finances and constraints of an IT Service to decide if alternative approaches to Service delivery might reduce Costs or improve Quality.

Service Reporting

The Process responsible for producing and delivering reports of achievement and trends against Service Levels.

Service Reporting should agree the format, content and frequency of reports with Customers.

Service Request

A request from a User for information, or advice, or for a Standard Change or for Access to an IT Service.

For example to reset a password, or to provide standard IT Services for a new User.

Service Requests are usually handled by a Service Desk, and do not require an RFC to be submitted.

See also: Request Fulfilment.

Service Sourcing

The Strategy and approach for deciding whether to provide a Service internally or to Outsource it to an External Service Provider.

Service Sourcing also means the execution of this Strategy.
Service Sourcing includes:

  • Internal Sourcing - Internal or Shared Services using Type I or Type II Service Providers.
  • Traditional Sourcing - Full Service Outsourcing using a Type III Service Provider.
  • Multivendor Sourcing - Prime, Consortium or Selective Outsourcing using Type III Service Providers.
Service Strategy

The title of one of the Core ITIL publications. Service Strategy establishes an overall Strategy for IT Services and for IT Service Management.

Service Transition

A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service.

Service Transition includes a number of Processes and Functions and is the title of one of the Core ITIL publications.

See also: Transition.

Service Utility

The Functionality of an IT Service from the Customer's perspective.

The Business value of an IT Service is created by the combination of Service Utility (what the Service does) and Service Warranty (how well it does it).

See also: Utility.

Service Validation and Testing

A measurement of the total Cost of delivering an IT Service, and the total value to the Business of that IT Service.

Service Valuation is used to help the Business and the IT Service Provider agree on the value of the IT Service.

Service Warranty

Assurance that an IT Service will meet agreed Requirements.

This may be a formal Agreement such as a Service Level Agreement or Contract, or may be a marketing message or brand image.

The Business value of an IT Service is created by the combination of Service Utility (what the Service does) and Service Warranty (how well it does it).

See also: Warranty.

Serviceability

The ability of a Third Party Supplier to meet the terms of their Contract.

This Contract will include agreed levels of Reliability, Maintainability or Availability for a Configuration Item.

Shift

A group or team of people who carry out a specific Role for a fixed period of time.

For example there could be four shifts of IT Operations Control personnel to support an IT Service that is used 24 hours a day.

Simulation modelling

A technique that creates a detailed Model to predict the behaviour of a Configuration Item or IT Service.

Simulation Models can be very accurate but are expensive and time consuming to create.

A Simulation Model is often created by using the actual Configuration Items that are being modelled, with artificial Workloads or Transactions. They are used in Capacity Management when accurate results are important.

A simulation model is sometimes called a Performance Benchmark.

Single Point of Contact

Providing a single consistent way to communicate with an Organisation or Business Unit.

For example, a Single Point of Contact for an IT Service Provider is usually called a Service Desk.

Single Point of Failure

Single Point of Failure (SPOF) - Any Configuration Item that can cause an Incident when it fails, and for which a Countermeasure has not been implemented.

A SPOF may be a person, or a step in a Process or Activity, as well as a Component of the IT Infrastructure.

See also: Failure.

SLAM Chart

A Service Level Agreement Monitoring Chart (SLAM Chart) is used to help monitor and report achievements against Service Level Targets.

A SLAM Chart is typically colour coded to show whether each agreed Service Level Target has been met, missed, or nearly missed during each of the previous 12 months.

SMART

An acronym for helping to remember that targets in Service Level Agreements and Project Plans should be:

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Relevant
  • Timely
Snapshot

The current state of a Configuration as captured by a discovery tool.

Also used as a synonym for Benchmark.

See also: Baseline.

Source

See Service Sourcing.

Specification

A formal definition of Requirements.

A Specification may be used to define technical or Operational Requirements, and may be internal or external.

Many public Standards consist of a Code of Practice and a Specification.

The Specification defines the Standard against which an Organisation can be Audited.

Stakeholder

All people who have an interest in an Organisation, Project, IT Service etc. Stakeholders may be interested in the Activities, targets, Resources, or Deliverables.

Stakeholders may include Customers, Partners, employees, shareholders, owners, etc.

See also: RACI.

Standard

A mandatory Requirement.

Examples include ISO/IEC 20000 (an international Standard), an internal security Standard for Unix configuration, or a government Standard for how financial Records should be maintained.

The term Standard is also used to refer to a Code of Practice or Specification published by a Standards Organisation such as ISO or BSI.

ITIL is not a Standard

See also: Guideline.

Standard Change

A pre-approved Change that is low Risk, relatively common and follows a Procedure or Work Instruction.

For example password reset or provision of standard equipment to a new employee.

RFCs are not required to implement a Standard Change, and they are logged and tracked using a different mechanism, such as a Service Request.

See also: Change Model.

Standard Operating Procedures

Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) - Procedures used by IT Operations Management.

Standby

Used to refer to Resources that are not required to deliver the Live IT Services, but are available to support IT Service Continuity Plans.

For example a Standby data centre may be maintained to support Hot Standby, Warm Standby or Cold Standby arrangements.

Statement of requirements

Statement of requirements (SOR) - A Document containing all Requirements for a product purchase, or a new or changed IT Service.

See also: Terms of Reference

Status

The name of a required field in many types of Record.

It shows the current stage in the Lifecycle of the associated Configuration Item, Incident, Problem etc.

Status Accounting

The Activity responsible for recording and reporting the Lifecycle of each Configuration Item.

Storage Management

The Process responsible for managing the storage and maintenance of data throughout its Lifecycle.

Strategic

The highest of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic, Tactical, Operational).

Strategic Activities include Objective setting and long term Planning to achieve the overall Vision.

Strategy

A Strategic Plan designed to achieve defined Objectives.

Super User

A User who helps other Users, and assists in communication with the Service Desk or other parts of the IT Service Provider.

Super Users typically provide support for minor Incidents and training.

Supplier

A Third Party responsible for supplying goods or Services that are required to deliver IT services.

Examples of suppliers include commodity hardware and software vendors, network and telecom providers, and Outsourcing Organisations.

See also: Underpinning Contract, Supply Chain.

Supplier and Contract Database

Supplier and Contract Database (SCD) - A database or structured Document used to manage Supplier Contracts throughout their Lifecycle.

The SCD contains key Attributes of all Contracts with Suppliers, and should be part of the Service Knowledge Management System.

Supplier Management

The Process responsible for ensuring that all Contracts with Suppliers support the needs of the Business, and that all Suppliers meet their contractual commitments.

Supply Chain

The Activities in a Value Chain carried out by Suppliers.

A Supply Chain typically involves multiple Suppliers, each adding value to the product or Service.

See also: Value Network.

Support Group

A group of people with technical skills.

Support Groups provide the Technical Support needed by all of the IT Service Management Processes.

See also: Technical Management.

Support Hours
The times or hours when support is available to the Users.

Typically this is the hours when the Service Desk is available.

Support Hours should be defined in a Service Level Agreement, and may be different from Service Hours. For example, Service Hours may be 24 hours a day, but the Support Hours may be 07:00 to 19:00.
 
Supporting Service

A Service that enables or enhances a Core Service. For example a Directory Service or a Backup Service.

See also: Service Package.

SWOT Analysis

A technique that reviews and analyses the internal strengths and weaknesses of an Organisation and the external opportunities and threats which it faces SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

System

A number of related things that work together to achieve an overall Objective. For example:

  • A computer System including hardware, software and Applications.
  • A management System, including multiple Processes that are planned and managed together. For example a Quality Management System.
  • A Database Management System or Operating System that includes many software modules that are designed to perform a set of related Functions.
System Management

The part of IT Service Management that focuses on the management of IT Infrastructure rather than Process.

Tactical

The middle of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic, Tactical, Operational).

Tactical Activities include the medium term Plans required to achieve specific Objectives, typically over a period of weeks to months.

Tag

A short code used to identify a Category. For example tags EC1, EC2, EC3 etc. might be used to identify different Customer outcomes when analysing and comparing Strategies.

The term Tag is also used to refer to the Activity of assigning Tags to things.

Technical Management Technical Management

The Function responsible for providing technical skills in support of IT Services and management of the IT Infrastructure.

Technical Management defines the Roles of Support Groups, as well as the tools, Processes and Procedures required.

Technical Observation

Technical Observation (TO) - A technique used in Service Improvement, Problem investigation and Availability Management.

Technical support staff meet to monitor the behaviour and Performance of an IT Service and make recommendations for improvement.

Technical Service

Synonym for Infrastructure Service

Technical Support

Synonym for Technical Management

Tension Metrics

A set of related Metrics, in which improvements to one Metric have a negative effect on another.

Tension Metrics are designed to ensure that an appropriate balance is achieved.

Terms of Reference

Terms of Reference (TOR) - A Document specifying the Requirements, Scope, Deliverables, Resources and schedule for a Project or Activity.

Test

An Activity that verifies that a Configuration Item, IT Service, Process, etc. meets its Specification or agreed Requirements.

See also: Service Validation and Testing, Acceptance.

Test Environment

A controlled Environment used to Test Configuration Items, Builds, IT Services, Processes etc.

Third Party

A person, group, or Business who is not part of the Service Level Agreement for an IT Service, but is required to ensure successful delivery of that IT Service.

For example a software Supplier, a hardware maintenance company, or a facilities department.

Requirements for Third Parties are typically specified in Underpinning Contracts or Operational Level Agreements.

Third-line Support

The third level in a hierarchy of Support Groups involved in the resolution of Incidents and investigation of Problems.

Each level contains more specialist skills, or has more time or other Resources.

Threat

Anything that might exploit a Vulnerability.

Any potential cause of an Incident can be considered to be a Threat. For example a fire is a Threat that could exploit the Vulnerability of flammable floor coverings.

This term is commonly used in Information Security Management and IT Service Continuity Management, but also applies to other areas such as Problem and Availability Management.

Threshold

The value of a Metric which should cause an Alert to be generated, or management action to be taken.

For example "Priority1 Incident not solved within 4 hours", "more than 5 soft disk errors in an hour", or "more than 10 failed changes in a month".

Throughput

A measure of the number of Transactions, or other Operations, performed in a fixed time.

For example 5000 emails sent per hour, or 200 disk I/Os per second.

Total Cost of Ownership

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) - A methodology used to help make investment decisions.

TCO assesses the full Lifecycle Cost of owning a Configuration Item, not just the initial Cost or purchase price.

See also: Total Cost of Utilization.

Total Cost of Utilization

Total Cost of Utilization (TCU) - A methodology used to help make investment and Service Sourcing decisions.

TCU assesses the full Lifecycle Cost to the Customer of using an IT Service.

See also: Total Cost of Ownership.

Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management (TQM) - A methodology for managing continual Improvement by using a Quality Management System.

TQM establishes a Culture involving all people in the Organisation in a Process of continual monitoring and improvement.
Keyword(s):
Transaction

A discrete Function performed by an IT Service. For example transferring money from one bank account to another.

A single Transaction may involve numerous additions, deletions and modifications of data. Either all of these complete successfully or none of them is carried out.

Transition

A change in state, corresponding to a movement of an IT Service or other Configuration Item from one Lifecycle status to the next.

Transition Planning and Support

The Process responsible for Planning all Service Transition Processes and co-ordinating the resources that they require.

These Service Transition Processes are Change Management, Service Asset and Configuration Management, Release and Deployment Management, Service Validation and Testing, Evaluation, and Knowledge Management.

Trend Analysis

Analysis of data to identify time related patterns.

Trend Analysis is used in Problem Management to identify common Failures or fragile Configuration Items, and in Capacity Management as a Modelling tool to predict future behaviour.

It is also used as a management tool for identifying deficiencies in IT Service Management Processes.

Tuning

The Activity responsible for Planning Changes to make the most efficient use of Resources.

Tuning is part of Performance Management, which also includes Performance Monitoring and implementation of the required Changes.

Type I Service Provider

An Internal Service Provider that is embedded within a Business Unit.

There may be several Type I Service Providers within an Organisation.

Type II Service Provider

An Internal Service Provider that provides shared IT Services to more than one Business Unit.

Type III Service Provider

A Service Provider that provides IT Services to External Customers.

Underpinning Contract

Underpinning Contract (UC) - A Contract between an IT Service Provider and a Third Party.

The Third Party provides goods or Services that support delivery of an IT Service to a Customer.

The Underpinning Contract defines targets and responsibilities that are required to meet agreed Service Level Targets in an SLA.

Unit Cost

The Cost to the IT Service Provider of providing a single Component of an IT Service.

For example the Cost of a single desktop PC, or of a single Transaction.

Urgency

A measure of how long it will be until an Incident, Problem or Change has a significant Impact on the Business.

For example a high Impact Incident may have low Urgency, if the Impact will not affect the Business until the end of the financial year.

Impact and Urgency are used to assign Priority.

Usability

The ease with which an Application, product, or IT Service can be used.

Usability Requirements are often included in a Statement of Requirements.

Use Case

A technique used to define required functionality and Objectives, and to Design Tests.

Use Cases define realistic scenarios that describe interactions between Users and an IT Service or other System.

See also: Change Case.

User

A person who uses the IT Service on a day-to-day basis.

Users are distinct from Customers, as some Customers do not use the IT Service directly.

User Profile

User Profile (UP) - A pattern of User demand for IT Services.

Each User Profile includes one or more Patterns of Business Activity.

Utility

Functionality offered by a Product or Service to meet a particular need.

Utility is often summarised as "what it does".

See also: Service Utility.

Validation

An Activity that ensures a new or changed IT Service, Process, Plan, or other Deliverable meets the needs of the Business.

Validation ensures that Business Requirements are met even though these may have changed since the original Design.

See also: Verification, Acceptance, Qualification, Service Validation and Testing.

Value Chain

A sequence of Processes that creates a product or Service that is of value to a Customer.

Each step of the sequence builds on the previous steps and contributes to the overall product or Service.

See also: Value Network.

Value for Money

An informal measure of Cost Effectiveness.

Value for Money is often based on a comparison with the Cost of alternatives.

See also: Cost Benefit Analysis.

Value Network

A complex set of Relationships between two or more groups or organisations.

Value is generated through exchange of knowledge, information, goods or Services.

See also: Value Chain, Partnership.

Value on Investment

Value on Investment (VOI) - A measurement of the expected benefit of an investment.

VOI considers both financial and intangible benefits.

See also: Return on Investment (ROI)

Variable Cost

A Cost that depends on how much the IT Service is used, how many products are produced, the number and type of Users, or something else that cannot be fixed in advance.

See also: Variable Cost Dynamics.

Variable Cost Dynamics

A technique used to understand how overall Costs are impacted by the many complex variable elements that contribute to the provision of IT Services.

Variance

The difference between a planned value and the actual measured value.

Commonly used in Financial Management, Capacity Management and Service Level Management, but could apply in any area where Plans are in place.

Verification

An Activity that ensures a new or changed IT Service, Process, Plan, or other Deliverable is complete, accurate, Reliable and matches its Design Specification.


See also: Validation, Acceptance, Service Validation and Testing.

Verification and Audit

The Activities responsible for ensuring that information in the CMDB is accurate and that all Configuration Items have been identified and recorded in the CMDB.

Verification includes routine checks that are part of other Processes. For example, verifying the serial number of a desktop PC when a User logs an Incident.

Audit is a periodic, formal check.

Version

A Version is used to identify a specific Baseline of a Configuration Item.

Versions typically use a naming convention that enables the sequence or date of each Baseline to be identified.

For example Payroll Application Version 3 contains updated functionality from Version 2

Vision

A description of what the Organisation intends to become in the future.

A Vision is created by senior management and is used to help influence Culture and Strategic Planning.

Vital Business Function

Vital Business Function (VBF) - A Function of a Business Process which is critical to the success of the Business.

Vital Business Functions are an important consideration of Business Continuity Management, IT Service Continuity Management and Availability Management.

Vulnerability

A weakness that could be exploited by a Threat. For example an open firewall port, a password that is never changed, or a flammable carpet.

A missing Control is also considered to be a Vulnerability.

Warm Standby

Synonym for Intermediate Recovery.

Warranty

A promise or guarantee that a product or Service will meet its agreed Requirements.

See also: Service Validation and Testing, Service Warranty.

Work in Progress

Work in Progress (WIP) - A Status that means Activities have started but are not yet complete.

It is commonly used as a Status for Incidents, Problems, Changes etc.

Work Instruction

A Document containing detailed instructions that specify exactly what steps to follow to carry out an Activity.

A Work Instruction contains much more detail than a Procedure and is only created if very detailed instructions are needed.

Workaround

Reducing or eliminating the Impact of an Incident or Problem for which a full Resolution is not yet available. For example by restarting a failed Configuration Item.

Workarounds for Problems are documented in Known Error Records.

Workarounds for Incidents that do not have associated Problem Records are documented in the Incident Record.

Workload

The Resources required to deliver an identifiable part of an IT Service.

Workloads may be Categorised by Users, groups of Users, or Functions within the IT Service.

This is used to assist in analysing and managing the Capacity, Performance and Utilisation of Configuration Items and IT Services.

The term Workload is sometimes used as a synonym for Throughput.

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